CONQUEST TO TAKE OVER NIGERIA BY UTHMAN DAN-FODIO’S FULANI- FAMILY JIHADISTS: THE WAY FORWARD
The Jihad of Uthman Dan Fodio, also known as the Sokoto Jihad conquered the Hausaland, and established the Sokoto caliphate, which comprises some parts of Niger Republic. More territories where added to the caliphate by the British Colonial Masters. The caliphate thrived and continues to grow since the Colonial era, to independence, up to the present day Nigeria. The Sarduana of Sokoto, a Prince of the Caliphate and First Premier of Northern Nigeria is quoted to have stated as follows;
“The new nation called Nigeria should be an estate of our great grandfather Othman Danfodio. We must ruthlessly prevent a change of power. We use minorities in the North as willing tools and the South as a conquered territory and never allow them rule over us and never allow them to have control over their future”.- Late Sir, Ahmadu Bello (Sardauna of Sokoto and Premier Northern Nigeria). -Parrot Daily Newspaper October 12, 1960; Google search: Sarduana Parrot Newspaper.
As at today, there is nobody to the best of my knowledge, who successfully disproved the veracity of the above statement, as having been made by the Late Sardauna of Sokoto. Two attempts were made; one by Femi Abbas on 29th January 2018. He referred to the statement as fabricated by ‘The Tribune’ Newspaper, entitled “The Northern Agenda” by a columnist (name withheld). He applied the use of quotation marks and hinged his arguments on deductive reasoning which he never claimed ownership and declared that the parrot newspaper never existed and that the proprietor is unknown. Two: by a Blogger Kenyaplex.com; posted on 30th April 2018. The Blogger named one Hassan Payuka as the proprietor of the Parrot Daily Newspaper who was said to have made libelous publication against one Mrs. Rose Brown. The Blogger solicited for legal advice from the public on her behalf. Both attempts are contradictory, as Femi Abbas claimed that the Newspaper never existed, while the Blogger Kenyaplex is soliciting public assistance for legal action on the same newspaper said never to have existed. What is fact to both cases is that they were published online.
Sokoto caliphate as an institution is alive and can take steps to prove the veracity or otherwise of the above statement credited to one of their prominent family member.
Most probably in a heed to the said call by Sardauna, “Jama’atul Nasril Islam-JNI (Group for the victory of Islam) was founded in 1962, by a coalition of Muslim leaders in northern Nigeria, and served as an umbrella organization for a variety of Muslim groups and interests”. – Toyin Falola and Ann Genova (Laham Scare-crow press, 2009) P178. In a statement published by Bala Mohammed in a presentation to commemorate the 50th Anniversary of the JNI, he said inter alia, that JNI should not indulge directly into partisan politics and that “it should always draw attention of all Muslims to their civil and legal rights and help them towards achieving them”. This means that the JNI is approved to be involved in partisan politics indirectly and judicial activism directly.
To paraphrase the second sentence of the Sarduana’s statement under reference: We (children of Othman Danfodio) must ruthlessly (by Jihad/strive) prevent a change of power. In my view, this is a declaration of Fulani Family-Jihad. To corroborate this, Dr. Ibrahim A. Modu of University of Maiduguri stated in his book (HIS 302: Nigeria in the 19th Century) that; “The Jihad is seen as a political movement by the Fulani to establish themselves as the masters of Hausa land” P17. “Islam is not just a religion but also, ‘a way of life’ “. In Islam, there is therefore no distinction between religion, politics, economics and law; P15-16.
“the Sokoto Jihad variously known as the Fulani Jihad, the Jihad of 1804, and the Shehu Uthman Jihad took place in 1804 in Hausa land; P12. “Only the people of the present Benue, Plateau, and parts of Kwara State escaped the Jihad. Still some areas like core of the Bomb (Borno?) empire, Zuru (in Sokoto State), parts of Bauchi and Adamawa successfully resisted the Jihad, these areas remained outside the caliphate,” P13.
PILLARS/COMMANDMENT OF ISLAM:
- Believe in only one God and his Prophet Mohammed (SAW), (2) Prayer (Salat), (3) Alms (Zakat), (4) Fasting, (5) Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj), NB: Jihad regarded as the 6th pillar, is an obligation binding on a Muslim community, and not on the individual Muslim; It takes the leader of the Muslim community to call his men to take military action; P13.
According to Dr. Zamir Akhtar Khan, Qital (war) is different from Jihad, it is fought by Muslims to foil a threat from non-muslims.
On war, Sahih Bukhari (52:269) “The Prophet said, war is deceit”. This means that deceit could be applied to prepare and justify grounds for killings. Is Nigeria at war or not?
On whose deceit are Nigerians being killed and indigenous people’s lands taken over?
Why is the federal government relentlessly pursuing the agenda of securing lands all over states’ and local governments’ areas of Nigeria, for Fulani tribal group, in the guise of enhancing their private cattle rearing business?
Why is the federal government unwilling to declare Killer Fulani Herdsmen as Terrorists?
Can the religiously/ethnically biased lopsidedness in the control/command structure of the Armed Forces and Security Agencies of the country be absolved of complicity in the unabetting killings, displacements and takeover of peoples’ lands going on in the country?
Answers to the above and other questions herein asked could be arrived at, by assembling the pieces of information contained in this research work, like in the approach to solving Jigsaw Puzzles.
On 17th November, 1993, the Late General Sani Abacha Nigeria’s former Head of State said ‘if insurgency lasts more than 24 hours, the government have a hand in it”. Is the present circumstance in Nigeria different?
The Nigeria 1999 Constitution is conceived and conceptualized by Taqiyya, Taqiyya is Deceit, Deceit is War: this war is best understood by Boko Haram, Miyetti Allah (Fulani Herdsmen) prosecuting it, and Muslim Monarchs (the Ultimate Beneficiaries as succinctly posited by Dr. Zamir Akhtar Khan, details as you read further). Because war is deceit, the initiators and actors in this kind of warfare will never admit it, until their targets are consumed and their aims are achieved.
“Between 1794-1795, the Skeikh not only claimed to have seen a vision suggesting a Jihad, he also authorized his followers to arm themselves” P19. “If they died, paradise was a sure reward. If they survived, a share in the war booty would come, to be followed by the enjoyment of the paradise in heaven” P21. Consequently, “from Gobir, the conflict (Jihad) spread to other Hausa states. By April 1805, Kebbi the capital of Birnin Kebbi had fallen after which Uthman Danfodio’s forces occupied other parts of the state, and Zamfara. Between 1805 and 1807 they had captured Katsina, Daura, Kano and Zaria. Gombe, Bauchi, Adamawa, Ilorin, Nupe and Kontagora fell later”. Part of Niger Republic was also conquered. Hence the Fulani nationality cut across Nigeria and Niger; P21. “The Jihad overthrew the Hausa Rulers, replacing them with the Fulani. Under the Fulani, there was a deliberate attempt to run the government in accordance with the Islamic principles” P21.
Fallouts of the military action (Jihad): (1) Victory (war booty became available), (2) Propaganda (mass mobilization machine was formed) P21-22. Sharing of war booty and propaganda became the major tools of the Dan Fodio’s Jihad.
“The Qadiriyya Brotherhood became the dominant brotherhood of the Sokoto Caliphate” P26. The Qadiriyya Brotherhood are known to have formed fighting units of Dervishes during the war in Bosnia. It is instructive to note that Egypt as a Muslim country, had to out- rightly ban their Muslim brotherhood for acts of Islamic extremism, in addition to sacking the government of President Mohamed Morsi.
Instead of the Egyptians’ example, “Indeed, the social and political texture of present day Northern Nigeria has continued to be conditioned by the consequences of the Jihad” P26.
Consider meanings and interconnectivity of the following words in relation to the Sardauna’s statement under reference
Jihad= Strive=Relentless=RUTHLESS; pursuit of the objective (i.e. to own Nigeria).
From the concept of Taqiyya, an Islamic principle where lying and deception to non-Muslims is permissible, meanings (veracity) of words/phrases are only absolutely valid within the context of Islam and physical science, and places where Muslims hold no sway, but have to strive. This means that absolute common grounds between Muslims and non-Muslims is never likely possible on issues.
Jihad is said to be of four stages, striving against; (1) Self (AL-Nafs) (2) Devil (Al-Shayaateen, (3) Disbelievers (Al-kuffaar) (4) Hypocrites (Al-Munaafiqeen). See their full meanings as you read further.
Uthman Danfodio spread Islam through preaching and religious war conquests by Jihad. Upon conquering every human settlement, he installed his children and siblings as Emirs over the groups of the conquered people: the Emir becomes the religious and traditional leader of the people. The people pay tax to the Emir and remain his subjects for life. Only children of the Emir (descendants of Uthman Dan-Fodio, children of his siblings and of his flag bearers) are entitled to inherit the throne under the caliphate. Others remain mere subjects or slaves of the Emirate/Caliphate.
Uthman Dan-fodio’s quest for Islamization, war (Jihad) and territorial expansion did not go with morality (i.e. Fe Sebilillah in the words of Dr. Zamir Akhtar Khan) but more of economic enterprises and ethnic politics. This is so because, he attacked Kanem Borno Empire even though the people were Muslims before he started his Jihad war of conquests, in Hausalands and the Subsequent attacks on Borno by his Jihadists.
Victory of the Fulani Jihad over the Hausas led to inter marriages amongst them which appear to have blended the two Races together, thereby forming a seemingly homogenous but mixed races of the Nobles (Fulanis) and the Commons (Hausas), referred to as Hausa-Fulani Ethnic group. Although, “The Fulani were a very cohesive ethnic stock. Even though they could marry outside their fold, they were not willing to give their daughters out to those from other ethnic groups” P23. Hence the nationality and fraternity of the Fulanis that cut across nations is by flesh and blood relationship. It is no wonder therefore that, this bias comes first before any other consideration, both in their private and official dealings. The Nigeria quota system as policy of governance has its roots from this same bias. The Hausa remained conquered, subsumed and deculturalised under the Fulani hegemony. Their identity fizzles out as they finally lost control/ownership of their ancestral lands.
On another occasion, Uthman Dan-Fodio had agreement (directly or indirectly) to help one of the contestants in a war of rivalry between two sons of the demised Oba of Ilorin, over heirship to the vacant throne. He helped one of the rival sons (Afonja) to kill the other contesting brother so that Afonja can succeed their father’s throne. Uthman Dan-Fodio afterwards overthrew Afonja, whom he pretended to have helped, and installed his own son as the Emir of Ilorin. This is why the Hausa-Fulanis (aka the Gambaris) are ruling Ilorin till today. Dr. Ibrahim A. Modu’s historical account corroborates the above thus: “with the help of a Fulani Muslim Cleric, Alimi, and some Oyo Chiefs, he (ie Afonja) successfully revolted against the Alafin and proclaimed the independence of Ilorin. The Fulani thereafter captured Ilorin, which became an emirate of the Sokoto Empire P36-37. But different from Uthman Danfodio’s type of Jihad, the Elkanemi, despite his military prowess and victories in fighting for the Mai Borno, Elkanemi did not unwarrantedly usurp the leadership of Borno: “it was he (Elkanemi) who presided over the appointment of Ibrahim (a successor) as the new
Mai” P62. This is unlike Uthman Dan Fodio who sets out to take over territories out-rightly. Of these two Jihadists, whose Jihad could be said to be for the sake of Allah (Fe Sebilillah)?
These incidences at Kanem Borno Empire and Ilorin sufficiently proved that Uthman Dan-Fodio was not only out to propagate the Islamic Faith, but was equally on political expansionism with economic interests using the Islamic Jihad. The Jihad is one of the pillars/articles of Islamic Faith.
Islamic religion did not encourage Northern Muslims to embrace western education (according to them it is a HARAM), though a few of them did embrace it. While I was growing up as a kid at Tudun Wada Kaduna, in the 60s the popular phrase used to be “Yan Boko Wuta!” That is, “those with western education are destined to hell fire!”. Then it was common hearing Hausa-Fulani children singing: “Yan makarantan Boko-ko, Ba’a Karatu ba’a sallah, Sai yawan zagin mallam”. It means, those learning western education “Don’t read The Koran,” and “Don’t observe Islamic” prayers but spend time insulting mallams (Islamic teachers). This song is usually sang each time other children were seen going to/returning from western schools. Hence, the Hausa-Fulanis became the last ethnic group in Nigeria to embrace western education (partially though). Nomadic Fulanis were introduced to western education in the nineties. Until the year 2014, the Hausa-Fulani Almajiris were limited to koranic studies and indoctrination in the philosophy of Jihad and Arabic culture/tradition. They were made to believe that there is bountiful reward for them in heaven, if they kill or get killed in fighting for Allah. Consequently, they became ready-made ‘Foot-Soldiers’ and Suicide Bombers for use in Hausa-Fulani territorial expansion Troubles and Terrorism, which is the trade-mark of the Hausa-Fulanis that manifests as Boko Haram and Herdsmen Militia of today.
By the year 1987, some of these children (my contemporaries) were in their late twenties and early thirties, fully groomed with extreme hatred and inspiration for violence. Consequently, the first ethno-religious riot broke out in Kafanchan (Southern Kaduna) in the year 1987. These group of people, particularly those who acquired both western and Islamic education, are today amongst policy makers/executors in Nigeria. Muslims, by virtue of their faith, have obligation to propagate Islam by Jihad (Striving). Those in Government Establishments and Authorities initiate and execute ‘peaceful’ and ‘subtle’ Jihad, while those outside establishment/Authority execute violent Jihad, to displace and occupy new territories/frontiers of control. It bows to reason therefore, that, Boko Haram and Fulani Herdsmen militia were not formed by ACCIDENT. As Muslims, the Hausa-Fulanis have obligation to execute both peaceful and violent Jihad, in complement to each other. According to Dr. Ibrahim A. Modu, the Jihad is an obligation binding on a Muslim community (i.e. Ummah); P13.
But on the other hand, the ethnic minority groups of Nigeria, who were not conquered by the Danfodio Jihad, embraced Christianity and western civilization/education. Yet the colonial masters, for their own convenience, forced these Western Educated Groups to go under the Hausa-Fulani leadership. For example, an Emir was imposed on the people of Kafanchan in Kaduna State, who had nothing to do with Islam or Hausa-Fulanis, by culture or tradition, except Trade and Commerce.
The British colonial masters delayed granting independence to Nigeria because the Hausa-Fulani’s bulk of the North were backward, compared to the southern parts of the country, in terms of western education and civilization.
Upon granting independence to Nigeria, the Hausa-Fulanis were pampered with political leadership of government of Nigeria. Quota system was adopted as national policy in governance to help bridge the gap mainly in their favour. These two developments gave the Hausa-Fulanis an unparalleled advantage over and above every other ethnic group in Nigeria. From the advantages of these two developments, the Hausa-Fulani Elites/Monarchs dominated and amassed for themselves awesome political and economic power, which they relentlessly schemed to expand, control and sustain eternally through the use of Islamic Religion (sharia), reinforced by 1999 constitution of Nigeria, Boko Haram and Fulani Herdsmen Militia by proxy.
The Sultan of Sokoto is the descendant of Othman Dan-Fodio and he holds the highest Islamic office and traditional authority in Nigeria. Only the descendants of Othman Dan-Fodio qualify to hold those offices.
The Hausa-Fulani Muslim Elites/Monarchs continued to execute their programmes of territorial expansion, consolidation and dominance of political power, authority and economy which manifest as follows:
- Arabic writings on Nigeria currency notes.
- Masterminded killing of General Ironsi and the pogrom against Igbos in the North in 1966 without justification.
- Cancelling of Nigeria’s hosting of Miss World Beauty contest, by rioting to prove their dominance.
- Seizure of missionary schools and giving them Hausa-Fulani Muslim identities.
- Foisting the Civil Sharia on 1978 constitution.
- Imposition of Criminal Sharia in addition to the civil sharia on 1999 constitution.
- Registration of Nigeria as member country of the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC).
- Membership of Islamic countries military coalition on “Terrorism”
- Establishment of All Progressives Congress Party (APC)
- Imposition of full-sharia laws in Northern States of Nigeria.
- Establishment of Islamic Bank in Nigeria: Profit Sharing on executed loans replaces interest-free loans. If the aim is to access interest-free loans the aim is defeated. They alone know why they needed the Bank.
- Use of Almajiris to commit arson and murder on Churches, Christians and sometimes other non-Hausa Muslims.
- Establishment of militant Islamic group called Boko Haram.
- Cancellation of open ballot system of election, which defy manipulation and rigging of elections.
- Lopsidedness in favor of Hausa-Fulanis, in creation of wards and polling units in Northern Nigeria
- Construction of the National Assembly Complex like a National Mosque, to portray Nigeria as a purely Muslim country.
- Use of Tacit Support for Fulani Herdsmen militia and their atrocities against other Nigerians.
- Refusal to allow erection of Aso Rock villa Christian Chapel until former President Obassanjo changed the status-quo.
- Cancellation of June 12, 1993 elections and the 2 party system that defied ethnic and religious biases.
- Quit notice to leave Nigeria was issued to Igbo people by the Arawa Youths of Northern Nigeria in an audacious manner with impunity. Nobody was held accountable.
- Establishment of Miyetti Allah – group associated with Fulani Herdsmen Militancy.
- Establishment of National Council of Traditional Rulers of Nigeria (NCTRN) for exclusive leadership of the Sultan.
- Emasculation of Local Governments by Northern States Governors, vide joint accounts.
- Establishment of dry sea ports in the north for direct delivery of imports without inspection at southern sea ports of arrival, despite its vulnerability to national security.
- The use of “Born to Rule” as state’s slogan by Sokoto state at certain time.
- Arabic inscription on logo of the Nigerian Army.
- Those known to have openly opposed the Sardauna philosophy, fell as casualties of the Hausa-Fulani dominant power of the military era. They amongst others include:
- Colonel Yahana Madaki, for expressing support for the ideology behind Major Nzeogwu’s coup and his removal of a corrupt Emir from office.
- Colonel Dangiwa Umar (one of the very few fair minded Hausa-Fulani elite), for showing support for the outcome of June 12, 1993 election in favour of MKO Abiola.
- Commodore Ebitu Ukiwe, for expressing disapproval over the surreptitious manner Nigeria was registered as member of OIC.
People’s land space endowment provides the necessary infrastructural supports needed to develop the people’s livelihood.
The Southern Kaduna, Benue and Plateau indigenous people and other indigenous Nigerians are forcefully losing their parcels of land and livelihood by every passing day, due to incessant attacks by invaders in the guise of herdsmen (who are generally known to be of Hausa – Fulani ethnic origin). The threat of outright displacement/annihilation of the people and takeover of their lands is palpably imminent.
Without the land, the people will lose their ancestral heritage, identity, and disappear into extinction.
ONE MAY ASK THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:
- Who are the forces behind these land grabbers and why are they forcefully taking over our lands by every means possible?
- Where are the Federal and State Governments, where is justice, equity, fairness, freedom for all citizens, as enshrined in the 1999 constitution?
- When shall we experience the joy of the tenets of our National Anthem and Pledge, which we recite every day?
- When will our constitution be applied in protection of rights of the minority?
- Does the 1999 constitution truly represent the democratic wish and aspiration of all Nigerians?
- Has operation of the 1999 constitution guaranteed the unity of the country, and has it been operated in accordance with the tenets of justice, equity, fair play and security to all?
- Why did the British Colonial Masters fail to return to the Status Quo Ante, those Tribes and Groups that were not under the Sokoto caliphate pre-colonial era? At least it’s on records that; in 1886, two Yoruba clergymen Bishop Charles Phillips from Undo (or Ondo) and Samuel Johnson, were sent by the British to make peace. Consequently, Ibadan accepted to recognize the independence of Ekitiparapo and to dissolve its empire, Modakeke to move from Ife to Ibadan territory and Ife was asked to reoccupy their town; P48.
According to Bishop Matthew Hassan Kukah, a Catholic Priest per excellence, in his paper titled: Nigeria, “Flying Without a Black Box” i.e., in his reference to the preparation that led to the present day Nigerian democracy. He said:
“We set out on a road with no clear maps, with a controversial constitution given to a motley crowd of greedy businessmen and political contractors and a coterie of individuals who had honed their skills in manipulating the levers of powers and could survive either under the military or civilian administration. To this extent, what we had was a transition from the military but not necessarily a transition to democracy.
Fundamentally, “the aim of a constitution is to serve as a vehicle for transferring allegiance of a country’s citizens from their primordial interests (ethnic, communal, religious, and regional, etc.) to the higher interests of the state”. Ironically, Sharia laws are negation of constitutional ideals, no matter their loftiness. By the inclusion of Sharia in the 1999 Constitution, the Hausa-Fulanis were subtly granted the right to secede and/ or execute territorial expansion, by applying any means including Jihad, Qital and/or terrorism. This was imposed on all other Nigerians by military regime of General Abdulsalam Abubakar. This is evil, detestable, resentful, unacceptable and challengeable. Our locus standi is derivable from, the countless number of lives and properties suffered loss by Southern Kaduna, Benue, Plateau people (other Nigerians inclusive), the rights to life and the rights to live in a country guided by a truly democratic constitution.
It is application of Taqiyya (lying and deception) as mere pretention therefore, by the Hausa Fulani Muslim Elites, declaring Boko Haram as terrorist, and Shiite Muslims/Fulani herdsmen as criminals/bandits, and other Islamic militants as lawless extremists, or non Muslims. From the Islamic literature (Islam the Complete Code of Life), it shows that Islam approves killing (i.e. Jihad against the Disbelievers: Al-Kuffaar) excerpt as follows:-
Ibn al-Qayyim said: “Jihaad is of four stages: jihaad al-nafs (striving against the self), jihaad al-shayaateen (striving against the shayaateen or devils), jihaad al-kuffaar (striving against the disbelievers) and jihaad al-munaafiqeen (striving against the hypocrites).
Jihaad al-nafs means striving to make oneself learn true guidance, and to follow it after coming to know it, calling others to it, and bearing with patience the difficulties of calling others to Allaah. Jihaad al-Shaytaan means striving against him and warding off the doubts and desires that he throws at a person, and the doubts that undermine faith, and striving against the corrupt desires that he tries to inspire in a person. Jihaad against the kuffaar and munaafiqeen is done in the heart and on the tongue, with one’s wealth and oneself. Jihaad against the kuffaar mostly takes the form of physical action, and jihaad against the munaafiqeen mostly takes the form of words… The most perfect of people are those who have completed all the stages of jihaad. People vary in their status before Allaah according to their status in jihaad.”(Zaad al-Ma’aad 3/9-12)
See also www.crownnewsng.com – Miyetti Allah, “we will never stop killing because Allah commanded us to kill”. Other supporting Jihad literatures include that of Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani (Chairman, Islamic Supreme Council of America) and Shaykh Seraj Hendricks (Head Mufti, Cape Town, South Africa) titled Jihad: A Misunderstood Concept From Islam excerpts as follows:-
“Jihad by the heart; Jihad by the tongue; Jihad by the hand and Jihad by the sword.” “… (9:73) So the Prophet (saws) strove against the unbelievers by sword and against the hypocrites by tongue,” “… The singular exception to the majority opinion was that of Imam Shafi’I, who contended the verses (9:5) and (9:29) support the condition of Jihad being a continual war upon the non-Muslims until they repent and accept Islam or else pay jizya (referred to as polltax).”
Next, is the works of Zamir Akhtar Khan (An Analytical Study in the Light of the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet) titled: Concept Of Jihad In Islam. Excerpts as follows:- “Islam forbids killing/bloodshed without valid justification” my take is that this does not categorically void the idea of killing. “The tyrant Muslim rulers known as monarchs, indulged in futile wars just to extort the revenue or expand their empires.” My take: The Sultan and Emirs are Muslim Monarchs. Reference 8th June, 2014 Reuters Sanusi Lamido and www.vanguardngr.com/2009/11/21. “If a true Islamic state does not exist, then a revolutionary movement has to be started.” Boko Haram is a typical example, and to a reasonable extent Miyetti Allah too. “if Muslims struggle for their independence within the confines of Shariah it will be a lawful act.” As my take, this confirms that the incorporation of Shariah in the 1999 Nigerian Constitution legitimizes secession by Northern Hausa-Fulani Muslims.
“There are three phases of “Jihad Fe Sabilillah” for establishing Islam namely:- (a) Passive Resistance (b) Active Resistance (c) Armed Conflict.” “… we are advised to keep ourselves ready at war-footing, even though we are expected to show absolute reliance on God alone; rather than boasting of our material/military strength.” “Allah sent His Messenger (may peace be upon him) with guidance and the religion of Truth, to cause it to prevail over all religions, even though the pagans may detest (it).” “And muster against them all the military strength and cavalry that you can afford so that you may strike terror into hearts of your enemy and the enemy of Allah, and others besides them who are unknown to you but known to Allah.”
How does Allah reveal his enemies to Muslims? In all of the above, there is nothing that states unequivocally, that Muslims are not permitted to kill. What constitutes justification for killing is entirely their prerogative.
The concept of charity (Zakkat) as espoused in the Manual of Islamic Sacred Law (Umdat al-Salic) by Ahmad Ibn Naqib al-Misri, late Sheik Mahmood Gumi (details as you read further) and Google search on the subject show that Islam disapprove extension of charity to non Muslims. TAQIYYA is another Islamic principle which forbids Muslims from telling/accepting certain truths about Islam, to non Muslims, so long as such truths may impugn on the image of Islam. How do you trust a Muslim when you (as a non Muslim) can never know when he is saying the truth or not.
The Northern Minorities, Middle Belters, Igbos, South-South Minorities and Yoruba group of tribes are people with common Ancestry and Heritage. Their group/tribal relationship comes first over and above religion. So, Muslims of their own family group cannot ‘Jihad’ against them (their own people). The non-Hausa Fulani Muslims may be considered guilty of failing the first stage of Jihad (Al-Nafs) by their Fulani Muslims counterpart; and consequently consider the non-Hausa Fulani Muslims as hypocrites (Al-Munaafiqeen) and be ‘Jihaded’ against, by the Fulanis.
The Fulanis on the other hand, are Invaders who conquered and islamised the Northern Hausas by Jihad. They have no ancestral relationship or common heritage with any tribal groups of the North. Their ownership to land is by attacks, displacement of indigenous persons and occupation (take over), applying combination of Jihad (strive), Qital (Pre-emptive attack), Zakkat (Charity) and Taqiyya (Lying and deception) principles of Islam in the process. This informs the basis of their quest for: Federal Sharia, Free Grazing Routes and Reserves across Nigeria. It could be a ploy to establish Fulani Militia Command Formations across the country, to facilitate violent takeover of the entire country by them, in future. Fulani herdsmen are veritable ‘tools’ in this ‘project’. Fulani Muslims have no basis for humane emotional restraints to execute all the four stages of Jihad (killing inclusive). From their historical background as stated by Dr. Ibrahim Modu; “Fulani settlements were organized on a defensive basis and each group had its own militia to guard it in times of attack. So even before the Jihad, the Fulani had some experience of fighting in their own defense” P24. “Uthman Dan Fodio made contacts which later proved very useful when actual fighting began. Among those he met were Fulani groups scattered all over Hausa land. He also became friendly with some non-Fulani people and Muslim scholars: the existence of local supports in different parts of Hausa land and beyond thus facilitated the spread of the Jihad within a short period” P22. “This broad based support was crucial to the Jihad movement when fighting eventually broke out” P23. “Town Fulani owned large herds, and therefore indirectly controlled a considerable number of the nomadic brethren. Fulani scholars like Uthman Dan Fodio had close ties with their kith and kin. This situation strengthens their social solidarity and explains why they easily identified themselves with the Jihad” P23-24. My take: considering the proposed establishment of cattle colonies all over Nigeria, this may have similar effects on non-Fulani indigenous Nigerians.
The ongoing Fulani Herdsmen Militia and Boko Haram rampages/killings are complementary operations, aimed at territorial expansion and occupation, which curtailment/eradication continually proved abortive. Final onslaught on the country may include mutiny in the armed forces, as Jihad (strive) has no limits. The ideology is ever resident in the minds of the Faithful and they have no boundary on their scope of manifestations. On March 9th, 2018; Sheik Abubakar Giro Argungu, Sawtul Hikmah: in a well publicised video, called on the Muslim members of the armed forces to gear up for mutiny. On March 25th 2018; in a well circulated video clip, General TY Danjuma had cause to allege that the Armed Forces of Nigeria collude with armed bandits against their Nigerian citizens.
The menace of influx of foreign Jihadist/Mercenaries from Muslims neighboring countries, under the possible ‘collaboration’ of their kits and kins in Nigerian security agencies, is another angle to this.
President Buhari’s declaration of Boko Haram as “Godless People” is no condemnation either, he only stated the obvious as Muslims believe, there is no God but Allah. According to Shaykhs Mohammed Kobbani and Seraj Hendricks per the Hadith: “I have been ordered to fight the people until they declare that there is no God but Allah……” So, if a Muslim swears to an oath and concludes it by saying ‘so help me God’ that oath is not binding or valid! The big G for God is often used publicly on stickers in the same sentence under reference, while the small g is often used in literature.
These are reminiscent of a statement made by President Muhammadu Buhari sometime in August 2001, he said: “God willing, we will not stop the agitation for the total implementation of Sharia in the entire Federation of Nigerian”. Similarly, Abubakar Shekau, a well-known leader of Boko Haram, declared on January 27, 2012 that: “By Allah, we will not stop fighting, until every Nigerian is living by Sharia law. If you don’t abide, we will kill you”.
The above statements by President Buhari and Abubakar Shekau are serially in agreement with the statement made earlier by the Late Premier of Northern Nigeria, Sir Ahmadu Bello, the Sardauna of Sokoto Caliphate, as already quoted here on page1. From the Sarduana’s statements (as caption on page 1), one would expect that, Saudi Arabia, being the overall seat of Islam, the Monarchy would be of Prophet Mohammad’s descendants, and the Dan fodios may be following their example.
On the contrary, records from Wikipedia show that the Saudi Arabia monarchy is not rooted in the family-tree of Prophet Mohammad (founder of Islam), rather, it is rooted in the family-tree of Mohammad Ibn Saud (the ruling family till date). What then is the basis of Uthman Danfodio (the Fulani Jihadist) and his descendants (Emirs and Sultan) using Islam in their quest to rule over all Nigerian Muslims and non-Muslims? They simply qualify as colonialists with insatiable quest for territorial expansion and domination of political power, authority and the economy of Nigeria. Colonialism is crime against Nigerians and humanity! The works of Islamic Scholar Dr. Zamir Ahktar Khan cited earlier supports this view.
In my words, Nigeria is more of a political economic fraud, than a unified country. Without a democratically evolved constitution, the threads of nationhood, being the institutional mechanisms of restraints, begin to give way to individual or groups (e.g. The Hausa -Fulani) caprices, as they replace the supreme laws of the land with Sharia laws, which primarily serves their Ethnic and Family interests. This fraudulent political contraption (called Nigeria) has over the years, in very big measures, enhanced their dominance of political power and economy over and against other component groups of the country (particularly the middle belt, the Northern and Southern Minorities).
Since independence, the constitution and government policies particularly in the North (Kaduna state more particularly) have always been skewed tending towards Islam, which give the Hausa-Fulanis leverage and competitive advantages over others (and so it is between Northern Muslims and Southern Christians parts of Kaduna state and Nigeria at large).
Governor El –Rufai Nasir of Kaduna State did present a Religious Bill before the State House of Assembly, seeking to introduce prior Approvals and Licensing of churches and preachers, and curtailment of church activities and freedom of worship in the state, contrary to citizens’ religious rights and freedom as enshrined in the constitution
The same governor, without recourse to any known data, declared during a chat on Channels television program (Sunrise Daily of 6th April, 2016), that there are 70% Muslims and 30% Christian population in Kaduna state, as justification for the religious bill. The figures are contestable, as even the 2006 census did not carry column on religion. By implication, it is a policy statement of the Governor that shows his disposition and mindset against the Southern Kaduna Christian people of the state. Days earlier, it was on social media that the governor had concluded arrangements to sack a certain number of senior civil servants of the state and that 70% of that number were Southern Kaduna (Christians) indigenes of the state. His declaration during the television chat only lent credence to the earlier information, to the same effect, as that from the social media. Any wonder therefore, why Nigeria don’t have accurate data for meaningful planning?
The Hausa Fulani’s Elites’/Monarchs’ quest for domination of power and economy by ethno-religious means, land-grabbing through herdsmen violence, insurgency and various forms of militancy pose a grave threat to whatever we stand for as a country and as a people. Much unfortunately, the northern, middle belt and south-south minority tribal groups of indigenous people of Nigeria do not have the culturally homogenous and cohesive capacity like they do, to extend or sustain their frontiers of power or economy. They do not share in the ‘appealing ideology’ of ‘killing others or get killed’ for paradise reward, or the pleasure of sharing war booty, as their humane nature and belief is opposed to such vices, in contrast to Uthman Danfodio’s espoused Jihad ideals. The minority tribal Muslims may be termed ‘Hypocrites’ while the Christians and others are termed ‘Disbelievers.’
They (minority tribal groups) remain vulnerable to economic backwardness, occasioned by starvation, poverty, declining state of education, ill health and worst of all imminent annihilation. Kaduna States as example, even radio and television signals from Kaduna the State capital, is not received in Kafanchan and Environs (Southern Parts of the State). Yet they are a significant bulk of the Northern, middle belt and Southern minority people who fought for one Nigeria in a 3-year (1967-1970) civil war of the country. The Hausa-Fulanis ended up as the sole BENEFICIARIES of the Civil War. This confirms that they have been used as tools, as posited by the Sarduana’s Statement under reference.
Again, in the words of Bishop Kukah, on the same paper earlier cited, dated September4, 2012 he said, judicial activism and justice would positively thrive under the current constitution, though generally known to have been corrupted before its handover to Nigerians.
In my view, it is the duty of all well-meaning Nigerians and particularly the indigenous people of Central Nigeria, to stir up a sense of moral revulsion as to why a country constitutionally proclaimed ‘secular state’ allows some of the federating northern states to drift into ethno religious kingdoms. The Hausa-Fulanis being synonymous with Islam are like water and oil, in terms of mixing with other nationalities (be they Christians or Muslims), Hausa Fulani, will never mix and/ or co-exist harmoniously with other nationalities. They (Hausa-Fulani Muslims) have to be superior or annihilate the others. This is why in their controlled domains, there are settlements for non – indigenes while in domains outside their own, they create their own exclusive quarters. The Late Sage, Elder Statesman and legal luminary and former Premier western Nigeria, Chief Obafemi Awolowo in 1947 piqued that “Nigeria is not a nation but a mere geographical expression” over half a century, unfolding events in the country continue to prove the statement to be true. Do you believe we ever had a country?
To corroborate this further, Shiek Yakub El-Zakzaky (leader of the Islamic sect, Shiite Movement in Nigeria) had said:
“You cannot have a state running an Islamic government under another government which is not Islamic. Islam has to be superior, considering the fact that Sharia is the law of God. It has to be sovereign. Laws are to be drawn from it, and not above it.
Balarabe Musa (former governor of old Kaduna State) confirmed this by saying: “Sharia is above the constitution”. Late Dr. Lateef Adegbite (former Secretary General of Nigeria Supreme Council of Islamic Affairs), also threw his weight by saying: “Non-Muslims will respect the wishes of the majority (i.e. Muslims), when you are in Rome (Sharia states) you must do like the Romans”. Needless to say, same applies to entire Nigeria as a country, should Sharia be enacted as Federal law.
According to Sheik Mahmood Gumi, an international award winner, renowned Islamic scholar of repute, in an interview he granted to quality magazine published in 1987, he said: “if we want Nigeria to be a good country, we have to follow one faith (i.e. Islam). And he continued: “Nigeria Unity, if I am to do my best, is to try to convert Christians and non-Muslims as much as possible. Until the other religions become minority and they will not affect our society”. He also continued: “A good Muslim cannot choose a non-Muslim as his leader”.
The General, now President Buhari was in the news sometimes in year 2001, quoted as advising Muslims that: “Muslims should vote only Muslim candidates who will protect their religion”. Do the Hausa-Fulanis believe in the entity called secular-Nigeria? Obviously No! Except for Revenue Sharing.
Corroborating the above, the plans to Islamize Nigeria, to the advantage of the Hausa-Fulani Elites/Monarchs is growing real by the days. On four occasions they staged walkouts on issues of sharia for the whole country, during constitutional conferences. Despite the fact that the 1999 constitution, foisted on the country gives every state the right to adopt sharia, as its legal system, which has been applied by all Northern Hausa-Fulani controlled states, they still staged a walkout in the year 2014 constitutional conference on issues of sharia, for the whole country. There was yet an attempt in the present 8th National Assembly to pass a Bill on Sharia across the whole of Nigeria. This is perhaps a litmus test to guage the mood of Nigerians on the viability of proclaiming Islamic State for the country in future. The government’s agitation for Cattles Grazing Colonies, and other forms of land acquisition supports for cattle’s grazing, are furtherance of such attempts.
Notable Nigerians both from the Muslim and Christian divide have posited that, there is no intension to Islamize Nigeria, yet the attitude and actions of President Buhari and Muslims of the Hausa Fulani Northern States’ Governors have continued to reveal the contrary. President Buhari has been Patron of Miyetti Allah (an association of cattle rearers/herdsmen). www.vanguardngr.com/miyetti-allah-muhammd-buhari-restofus The herdsmen go about attacking and sacking communities and villages anywhere, at will. They also kidnap people, kill people and rape women at will. While these atrocities take place, the President is either quiet or talks belatedly, with no action to put the herdsmen in check. Instead, what we hear is a Bill before the National Assembly seeking to grant free grazing routes, zones, and cattle ranch reserves all over states of the country basically in favor of Hausa-Fulani herdsmen. Governor El-Rufai is on records to have paid money to Fulani herdsmen according to him, to stop killing Southern Kaduna people (instead of arresting them), only for the killing to continue unabated even under an existing state of emergency. At least, he has confirmed by this action, that the Fulani Herdsmen perpetrate killings.
President Buhari maintained a ‘justified’ silence on the matter as presented by his Special Assistant on Media (Mr. Femi Adesina). In the year 2017, attempt was made by Federal Ministry Education, to remove Christians Religious Knowledge as a subject from Nigeria school’s curriculum. In the year 2018 Nigeria Police Recruitment exams, questions in Arabic language was inexplicably featured as one of the exams papers. It is a move considered by many as sinister, by intent and action.
The Sultan, as president Nigeria Supreme Council for Islamic affairs and Chairman National Council of Traditional Rulers of Nigeria (NCTRN), is known to have said that Islam does not support the killing of innocent lives. But, can a non-Muslim ever qualify as an innocent life, in the eye of Islam? The concept of Jihad (strive) and its application depends on who is applying it and the person may or may not necessarily be accountable to the Sultan, as he is not the Koran/Hadith. Such person may be called an extremist but extremists are not deviants. So, at what point is extremism un-Islamic, if it is? One may ask: what business has non-Muslim and non-Hausa-Fulani, traditional ruler/chief got to do with the Sultan, yet he is their Chairman in the whole northern/southern states! This is nothing other than entrenchment of colonialism and subtle process of transformation of the Sultan to a de-facto supreme leader of Nigeria, in the model of Islamic Republic of Iran. This, in my well-considered view is the ultimate of their quest for Sharia Law across Nigeria. It will guarantee them perpetual control of Power, Politics and Economy of Nigeria. By so doing, Nigeria becomes the estate of Uthman Danfodio, their great grandfather, as posited by the late Sir Ahmadu Bello.
God bless the soul of whomever that falls their victim in the process.
According to the Global Terrorism Index 2015 Report, “Fulani Herdsmen or Militias killed 1229 people in year 2015 alone, as against the 63 people they killed in year 2013, making them the 4th most deadly terrorist group in the world”.
And for years 2015, 2016 and 2017; Nigeria remained the 3rd most terrorized country in the world. Although the Federal Government of Nigeria alongside other world bodies declared Boko Haram as Terrorists group, the same government is yet to be convinced that Killer Herdsmen in Nigeria are indeed Terrorists. May God help us in this country called Nigeria!
The references below suffice:
According to Sheik Mahmood Gumi, “there is no charity besides helping your own people” (i.e. Muslims). This means that under an eventual full “Islamic state of Nigeria” the sultanate being proprietary of Uthman Danfodio with his descendants as Kings, Queens, Princes and Princesses, all others become mere slaves (as hewers of wood and fetchers of water). Hence their desperate bids to either have an Islamic Nigeria Republic or no Nigeria.
This is the philosophy with which sharia states are governed in Northern Nigeria (Kaduna state inclusive).
Of course, All Progressives Congress (APC) party, is fundamentally a Muslim party, fashioned after the banned Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt. The Jama’atul Nasril Islam (JNI) is an indirect player in partisan politics (details as you read further).
List of Top founding members of the party as shown below attest to this fact:
- Party Leader North: Gen. Muhammadu Buhari (Muslim)
- Party Leader South: Sen. Bola Ahmed Tinibu (Muslim)
- National Chairman: Abdulkareem Bisi Akande (Muslim)
- Deputy National Chairman: Aminu Bello Masari (Muslim)
- National Secretary: Tijjani Musa Tumsah (Muslim)
- Deputy National Secretary: Nasir El-Rufai (Muslim)
- National Publicity Secretary: Lai Muhammed (Muslim)
- National Treasurer: Sadiya Umar Faruq (Muslim)
- National Financial Secretary: Alhaji Shuaibu Musa (Muslim)
- National Youth Leader: Abubarkar Lado (Muslim)
- National Legal Adviser: Muiz Banire (Muslim)
- National Deputy Auditor: Bala Jibrin (Muslim)
- National Women Leader: Sharia Ikeazor (Muslim)
- Ex- Officio Member: Muniru Muse (Muslim)
- Ex-Officio Member: Alhaji Yemi Sanusi (Muslim)
In conclusion, an ongoing JIHAD had already been declared on Nigeria by late Sir Ahmadu Bello, the Southern Kaduna predicament may just be a test case and smaller picture of what is to befall the middle belt, Northern minorities, South Easterners, South South minorities and ultimately the South Westerners. It is institutionalization of robbery of peoples’ lands and resources that Nigeria is being schemed through Islamization, to be owned by Dan Fodio family (Sharia, Boko Haram, Miyetti Allah/Fulani Herdsmen Militia, Proposed Grazing Reserves/Routs Law, Cattle Colonies and 1999 Constitution are all meant to achieve it). Whereas Islam as “religion of Allah” belongs to every Muslim. If Nigeria must be Islamized; where ultimate power shall reside in Nigeria Supreme Council of Islamic Affairs – i.e. NSCIA and Jama’atul Nasril Islam – i.e. JNI, office of the President Nigeria Supreme Council of Islamic Affairs and Jama’atul Nasril Islam, need to be LIBERALIZED and DEMOCRATIZED, open to all qualified Muslims regardless of Race, Tribe, Creed, or Traditional Institution: just as what obtains in Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN) where any qualified Christian can be the President. Unlike what obtains permanently that the Sultan alone continue to be president of both NSCIA and JNI. The NSCIA (objectives: preserve, protect, promote and advance the interests of Islam and Muslims in Nigeria) can be likened to the political arm, while the JNI is known as a group for the Victory of Islam in Nigeria. Victory in the context of Jihad goes with conquest, battle, war, struggle etc as ingredients of military campaign. The Arabic inscription (Nasrunminallah) on the Nigerian Army Logo/motto denotes Victory which they all know and understand. The origin of the logo/motto is said to be traceable to Shehu Uthman Danfodio’s Sokoto Caliphate, it was adopted by the British Pre-Independence and handed over to Nigeria in a formal ceremony. Hence the JNI can be likened to the Military Arm of the Hausa Fulani Muslims. The NSCIA/JNI may arguably be credited with political/administrative achievements like; Constitutional Sharia, Membership of OIC, seizure of Christians Missionary Schools, establishment of Islamic bank, affiliation with political party like APC, Skewed Electoral System, imprint of Arabic culture in national identity and monuments, impunity by herdsmen, Islamic Countries Military Coalition, Born To Rule as a Slogan, etc. The JNI guided by principles of Jihad, Taqiyya and Zakkat could not have contemplated victory without military elements for the exercise. However, they are known not to have agreed that, Boko Haram, Miyetti Allah/killer Herdsmen, Arewa Youths Coalition and Almajiris are their military elements, even though they are of same fraternal Muslim Tribal groups. These groups are known to have been associated with; Arson, killings, Forceful land occupation/grabbing across various parts of the country. As fallouts from their actions directly or indirectly; (1) Towns, Cities and Village settlements are presently balkanized along ethnic/religious lines. (2) Matters of Islam, Muslims and Fulani take centre stage at legislative and executive arms of government in their favour. (3) There is ongoing systematic annexation and take-over of indigenous communities by ‘foreigners’ (4) Conquerous domination of Nigerians through their traditional rulers by the Sultan. (5) Arewa Youths Coalition was formed. To a reasonable extent, their actions constitute victory on their part. Can the conceived JNI-Victory be said to be achievable without military campaign and military elements, in the context of Jihad? How are the objectives of JNI different from those of NSCIA, as two different Muslim Organizations? The Sultan as President of both NSCIA and JNI, means that he wields both political and ‘military’ power of the Muslim group of Nigerians. Such power to permanently reside in one family alone enslaves the entire country to that family. With Islamization of Nigeria, the Sultan stands to become the Supreme Leader of the country, over and above the President of Nigeria, just like what obtains in Republic of Iran, where the Supreme Leader can impeach the President and his decisions are final in all matters, even at the supreme court of the land. Nigerians cannot afford this, they did not bargain for this. Nigeria must not be owned by one family or ethnic group through Islam or any other religion whatsoever. Otherwise, the ongoing Islamization of Nigeria MUST be stopped. That cannot be said to be in the interest of Allah, as even the founder of Islam (Prophet Mohammed pbuh) did not do it. According to Dr. Zamir Akhtar Khan, “the Muslim Monarchs waged wars only for worldly gains. They have nothing to do with just Islamic and/or system, Jihad Fe Sebilillah”. Nigerian Muslim Monarchs may continue to deny and/or pretend that Jihad and/or Qital (war in view of threats from non-Muslims) are not being executed (or are executed) in Nigeria with their subterranean supports, but realities on ground continuously prove the contrary. The way out though long and tedious but sure, is to turn to our colonial masters that forced the “marriage union” on us, to solve the problem. Nigeria needs to be restructured in a manner agreed to by all nationalities. Otherwise, another looming dimension of political crises which may attract attention of the world, as it is already unfolding, may manifest, sooner or later, judging from the direction of the Kaduna state governor El-Rufai, Hausa-Fulani political/religious leaders, other Ethnic/Religious groups and the observed pre-disposition of President Buhari. This is corroborated by the call for self-defense made by Gen TY Danjama as earlier mentioned. There is the need to Holistically Review the existing Commands and Structures of all Governments Armed Forces and Security Agencies, to reflect Ethnic and Religious balances, in their Structures and their Commands Leaderships. All executive appointments should conform with constitutional provisions strictly.
From the foregoing, Security, Trade, Commerce and Industry are hampered in areas affected by the aforementioned attacks; life is no longer safe as ethnic cleansing is being unleashed on the indigenous Nigerian citizenry with no end in sight. The general atmosphere surrounding the southern Kaduna, Benue, Plateau, Taraba, Adamawa, people particularly and of cause other Nigerians, is too hostile for Peace, Survival, Politics and/or Economic Growth.
The Northern and Middle Belt Minority People (Christians and Muslims) particularly, and all other indigenous Nigerians need to achieve security of their land and people for Peace, Survival, Economic and Political Growth.
As common sayings, “a word is enough for the wise and a stitch in time saves nine”!
Comrade SAMUEL TABARA email@example.com
QUESTIONS TO SELF EVALUATE YOUR UNDERSTANDING
- What do you understand by the words: Islam, Muslim and Jihad?
- Describe the meaning of the following words: Taqiyya, Qital, Qadiriyya and Zakkat as used in this book.
- Who is Uthman Danfodio?
- What were the main attraction to Jihad as used by Uthman Danfodio?
- What do you understand by the statement: Jihad fe Sabilillah?
- Who is Elkanemi of Borno?
- What is the similarity or difference between the Elkanemi of Borno and Uthman Danfodio?
- Have there been instances of Jihad in Nigeria?
- How successful is this Jihad in Nigeria?
- Who are the agents of the Jihad in Nigeria?
- Does the 1999 Constitution of Nigeria approve Jihad?
- How is the execution of Jihadist principles affecting successive leadership and people of Nigeria?
- Would you say that Boko Haram and Fulani Herdsmen Militia are Jihadists and deadly threats to peace in Nigeria? Why do you think so?
- In what ways do you think the Sokoto Caliphate could Islamize and take-over ownership of Nigeria?
- Why are the people of Middle Belt particularly, the targets of the Fulani Herdsmen attacks?
- To whose benefits would the eventual islamization of Nigeria be?
- What do you think would be the adverse effect of the loss of the knowledge of history to future generations of Nigerian children?
- Explain how Nigeria is being manipulated into Islamic State and who are the individuals or groups doing the manipulation?
- Is Nigeria right now a secular or Islamic state, give reasons for your answer.
- Of what relevance is the proposed cattle colony in Jihad war?
- Google search; Sardauna Parrots Newspaper.
- HIS 302 Nigeria in the 19th Century by Dr. Ibrahim A. Modu.
- The Concept of Jihad in Islam by Dr. Zamir Akhtar Khan.
- Jihad: A Misunderstood Concept from Islam by Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kobbani and Shaykh Seraj Hendricks.
- Jama’atul Nasril Islam: Toyin Folola and Ann Genova Historical Dictionary of Nigeria.eds.
- Jama’atul Nasril Islam @ 50 by Bala Mohammed.
- Google search: Nigerian Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs.
- Reuters: Sanusi Lamido 8th June 2014
- www,vanguardngr.com sultan of Sokoto is 4th most influential monarch in Africa.
- The National Question: Ethnic Minorities and Conflicts in Northern Nigeria by Dr. Simon Yohanna.